从广义上来看,网络交换机分为两种:广域网交换机和局域网交换机。广域网交换机主要应用于电信领域,提供通信用的基础平台。而局域网交换机则应用于局域网络,用于连接终端设备,如PC机及网络打印机等。从传输介质和传输速度上可分为以太网交换机、快速以太网交换机、千兆以太网交换机、FDDI交换机、ATM交换机和令牌环交换机等。从规模应用上又可分为企业级交换机、部门级交换机和工作组交换机等。各厂商划分的尺度并不是完全一致的,一般来讲,企业级交换机都是机架式,部门级交换机可以是机架式(插槽数较少),也可以是固定配置式,而工作组级交换机为固定配置式(功能较为简单)。另一方面,从应用的规模来看,作为骨干交换机时,支持500个信息点以上大型企业应用的交换机为企业级交换机,支持300个信息点以下中型企业的交换机为部门级交换机,而支持100个信息点以内的交换机为工作组级交换机。 [3] 

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Bitcoin (BTC) is a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digital currency. Powered by its users, it is a peer to peer payment network that requires no central authority to operate. On October 31st, 2008, an individual or group of individuals operating under the pseudonym "Satoshi Nakamoto" published the Bitcoin Whitepaper and described it as: "a purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash, which would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution."

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NO WAY. How do some many people trust Coinbase with their money When their website’s software is full of faulty programs that they won’t or can’t fix. IE, I tried to add a new debit card to my account. I gave them my cards info and was told to check my account for two small charges made by coinbase and enter the amounts in a designated page. Both amounts were over $3.00, but the verification page only allowed me to submit amounts under $2.00. I was never able to add another card to my account. For me, no big deal,… Read more »

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For those of you who have not been paying attention to one of the biggest trends in investing and tech, cryptocurrencies are digital currencies using encryption techniques that regulate the generation of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank. Units of currency are created through a process referred to as mining.
What is the point of being insured if they will never admit wrongdoing? It is rare that an employee will steal your funds. My account was almost emptied when they sent my funds to someone in the Netherlands. Coinbase has done nothing to get them back for me. I had not even accessed my account for a week, yet they accuse me of doing something that caused this to happen. I would never give anyone my password, there’s no one else here to use my computer, my internet provider said I got no messages from Coinbase (2 step verification) on… Read more »

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In April 2019, a UK corporate filing stated that Coinbase's non-U.S. revenue grew 20% to €153 million (U.S.$173 million) in 2018 resulting in a net profit of €6.6 million.[37] Coinbase UK CEO Zeeshan Feroz said the company's non-U.S. operations accounted for nearly one-third of the company's overall revenue and Reuters estimated that the company's global revenue totaled "around $520 million" in 2018.[38]

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In 2014, the company grew to one million users, acquired the blockchain explorer service Blockr and the web bookmarking company Kippt, secured insurance covering the value of bitcoin stored on their servers, and launched the vault system for secure bitcoin storage.[12][13][14] Throughout 2014, the company also formed partnerships with Overstock, Dell, Expedia, Dish Network, and Time Inc. allowing those firms to accept bitcoin payments.[15][16][17][18] The company also added bitcoin payment processing capabilities to the traditional payment companies Stripe, Braintree, and PayPal.[19]

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In February 2019, Coinbase announced that it had acquired "blockchain intelligence platform" Neutrino, an Italy-based startup, for an undisclosed price.[33] The acquisition raised concern among some Coinbase users[34] based on Neutrino founders' connection to the Hacking Team, which has been accused of providing internet surveillance technology to governments with poor human rights records.[35] On March 4, 2019, Coinbase CEO Brian Armstrong said his company "did not properly evaluate" the deal from a due diligence perspective and thus any Neutrino staff who previously worked at Hacking Team "will transition out of Coinbase."[36]

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Bitcoin (BTC) is a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digital currency. Powered by its users, it is a peer to peer payment network that requires no central authority to operate. On October 31st, 2008, an individual or group of individuals operating under the pseudonym "Satoshi Nakamoto" published the Bitcoin Whitepaper and described it as: "a purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash, which would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution."

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With the largest variety of markets and the biggest value - having reached a peak of 18 billion USD - Bitcoin is here to stay. As with any new invention, there can be improvements or flaws in the initial model however the community and a team of dedicated developers are pushing to overcome any obstacle they come across. It is also the most traded cryptocurrency and one of the main entry points for all the other cryptocurrencies. The price is as unstable as always and it can go up or down by 10%-20% in a single day.

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Cryptocurrencies are experiencing a moment of unprecedented attention and speculation for several reasons. 1) The value of Bitcoin has been steadily climbing through 2017, with Ether seemingly poised to overtake the cryptocurrency giant any day; 2) Blockchain technology has purposes above and beyond cryptocurrency, and has been hailed by some as the backbone of the future financial system; 3) The increasing number of people who see cryptocurrency as a form of investment similar to gold. If cryptocurrencies stabilize in value, buying Bitcoin or Ether has the potential to be a worthy venture.  

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Coinbase has two core products: a Global Digital Asset Exchange (GDAX) for trading a variety of digital assets on its professional asset trading platform, and a user-facing retail broker of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ether, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin for fiat currency.[24] It also offers an API for developers and merchants to build applications and accept payments in both digital currencies. As of 2018, the company offered buy/sell trading functionality in 32 countries,[42] while the cryptocurrency wallet was available in 190 countries worldwide.[43] On March 26, 2018, Coinbase announced their intention to add support for ERC-20 tokens.[44]

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Despite the intricate technology associated with and necessary for cryptocurrency investing, speculation and possession, Coinbase has created an apparatus that makes this process remarkably easy and familiar, almost like buying and selling stocks. This screenshot from the Coinbase site shows real-time cryptocurrency prices and doesn't look too different from your ordinary online stock tracker. 

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In February 2019, Coinbase announced that it had acquired "blockchain intelligence platform" Neutrino, an Italy-based startup, for an undisclosed price.[33] The acquisition raised concern among some Coinbase users[34] based on Neutrino founders' connection to the Hacking Team, which has been accused of providing internet surveillance technology to governments with poor human rights records.[35] On March 4, 2019, Coinbase CEO Brian Armstrong said his company "did not properly evaluate" the deal from a due diligence perspective and thus any Neutrino staff who previously worked at Hacking Team "will transition out of Coinbase."[36]

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Over 98% of cryptocurrency is stored securely offline and the rest is protected by industry-leading online security. Your account is also subject to the same scrupulous safety standards, including multi-stage verification and bank-level security. You can even lock the app with a passcode, or remotely disable your phone’s access to the app if it gets lost or stolen.

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Bitcoin is the world’s first cryptocurrency which works on a completely decentralized network known as the blockchain. The blockchain network consists a link of blocks that are secured using cryptography and record all the transactions. Bitcoin was first presented to the world in 2009 by an anonymous identity known as Satoshi Nakamoto. As Bitcoin works on a decentralized network, it is completely free from the involvement of third-party financial institutions or central banks. The Bitcoin blockchain facilitates instant peer-to-peer transactions at minimum transactions fees required to maintain the network. The total number of Bitcoins is fixed at 21 million with its smallest unit being referred to as Satoshi. Each Satoshi represents a hundred millionth part of Bitcoin which means that 100,000,000 Santoshi = 1 BTC. Additional Bitcoins are generated by a process known as mining. Bitcoins are mined by professional miners solving complex computational equations. For each Bitcoin mined, the miners are rewarded with either more coins or transaction fees. The miners also validate all transactions on the Bitcoin network as well as look after the network security. Bitcoin can be exchanged with fiat currencies or other digital currencies. There are over 100,000 merchants and vendors accepting Bitcoin all over the world.
With the largest variety of markets and the biggest value - having reached a peak of 18 billion USD - Bitcoin is here to stay. As with any new invention, there can be improvements or flaws in the initial model however the community and a team of dedicated developers are pushing to overcome any obstacle they come across. It is also the most traded cryptocurrency and one of the main entry points for all the other cryptocurrencies. The price is as unstable as always and it can go up or down by 10%-20% in a single day. 

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Bitcoin (BTC) is the world’s first decentralized digital currency and payment system and is by far the most known and valuable cryptocurrency. It was created in 2009 by an anonymous person or group called Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin enables transactions to be sent peer-to-peer without passing through a central authority. The transactions are recorded on a decentralized public ledger called the blockchain and each payment acquires a small transaction fee to cover the cost of the network. The total supply of Bitcoin is 21 million and it’s smallest unit of bitcoin is called a Satoshi, it’s a hundred millionth of a bitcoin – 0.00000001 BTC. The creation of Bitcoin’s is happening through mining. Miners have the task to validate transactions and keep the network secure. Their efforts are rewarded by new minted Bitcoins and transactions fees. Bitcoin can be exchanged for fiat or other cryptocurrencies, products and services. Over 100,000 merchants and vendors accepts bitcoin as a payment.

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         划分子网可以缩小广播域,减少广播风暴对网络的影响。路由器每一接口连接一个子网,广播报文不能经过路由器广播出去,连接在路由器不同接口的子网属于不同子网,子网范围由路由器物理划分。对交换机而言,每一个端口对应一个网段,由于子网由若干网段构成,通过对交换机端口的组合,可以逻辑划分子网。广播报文只能在子网内广播,不能扩散到别的子网内,通过合理划分逻辑子网,达到控制广播的目的。由于逻辑子网由交换机端口任意组合,没有物理上的相关性,因此称为虚拟子网,或叫虚拟网。虚拟网技术不用路由器就解决了广播报文的隔离问题,且虚拟网内网段与其物理位置无关,即相邻网段可以属于不同虚拟网,而相隔甚远的两个网段可能属于不同虚拟网,而相隔甚远的两个网段可能属于同一个虚拟网。不同虚拟网内的终端之间不能相互通信,增强了对网络内数据的访问控制。

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Despite the intricate technology associated with and necessary for cryptocurrency investing, speculation and possession, Coinbase has created an apparatus that makes this process remarkably easy and familiar, almost like buying and selling stocks. This screenshot from the Coinbase site shows real-time cryptocurrency prices and doesn't look too different from your ordinary online stock tracker.

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         其原理是:假设两个使用IP协议的站点A、B通过第三层交换机进行通信,发送站点A在开始发送时,把自己的IP地址与B站的IP地址比较,判断B站是否与自己在同一子网内。若目的站B与发送站A在同一子网内,则进行二层的转发。若两个站点不在同一子网内,如发送站A要与目的站B通信,发送站A要向“缺省网关”发出ARP(地址解析)封包,而“缺省网关”的IP地址其实是三层交换机的三层交换模块。当发送站A对“缺省网关”的IP地址广播出一个ARP请求时,如果三层交换模块在以前的通信过程中已经知道B站的MAC地址,则向发送站A回复B的MAC地址。否则三层交换模块根据路由信息向B站广播一个ARP请求,B站得到此ARP请求后向三层交换模块回复其MAC地址,三层交换模块保存此地址并回复给发送站A,同时将B站的MAC地址发送到二层交换引擎的MAC地址表中。从这以后,当A向B发送的数据包便全部交给二层交换处理,信息得以高速交换。由于仅仅在路由过程中才需要三层处理,绝大部分数据都通过二层交换转发,因此三层交换机的速度很快,接近二层交换机的速度,同时比相同路由器的价格低很多。 

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For those of you who have not been paying attention to one of the biggest trends in investing and tech, cryptocurrencies are digital currencies using encryption techniques that regulate the generation of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank. Units of currency are created through a process referred to as mining.

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If you have the required hardware, you can mine bitcoin even if you are not a miner. There are different ways one can mine bitcoin such as cloud mining, mining pool, etc. For cloud mining, all you need to do is to connect to the datacenter and start mining. The good thing about this is that you can mine from anywhere and you don’t need a physical hardware to mine.

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Coinbase has lost my money twice now. Once was due to an old account that, thanks to a bug in their verification process, I cannot re-authenticate. I bought 1 bitcoin back when they were only about $50 each with Coinbase. That money is gone forever now. And I acknowledge that it’s my fault that I did not set up a forwarding email with Coinbase, their support just refused to help. The second time was a month ago. I made a trade on Coinbase, and for some reason, the app glitched to think I have 5x more money than I actually… Read more »
If you want to trade in digital currencies, you are going to need a platform on which to trade them, and an intermediary to communicate with the network. Coinbase is a global digital asset exchange company (GDAX), providing a venue to buy and sell digital currencies, as well as send information about those transactions out to the blockchain network to verify those transactions. Coinbase serves as a wallet, too, where the digital currencies can be stored. The application operates exchanges of Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, and Litecoin, as well as other digital assets with fiat currencies in 32 countries, and Bitcoin transactions in many more countries. According to its website, Coinbase has served over 10 million customers and facilitated the exchange of more than $50 billion worth of digital currency.

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In 2018 Coinbase launched their independant mobile wallet for iOS and Android. The wallet stores the private keys on the user’s device and only they have access to the funds. This brings Coinbase full circle as it started out as a wallet, transitioned to an exchange only (claiming that they are not a wallet) and now they are offering wallet services again.

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Because the blockchain works by verifying transaction history, and this verification process is labor-intensive and slow, only so many transactions can be verified in a certain timespan. So, if you sell your Bitcoin, but the purchase isn’t confirmed by the blockchain network, and the price of the currency changes, the sale won’t process. You'd have to sell your Bitcoin at whatever the new rate is (if you so choose to sell). Also due to the reality of blockchain, as well as for other reasons thus far unidentified, the Coinbase payout system can sometimes be unreliable. There have been reports of extensively delayed payout periods, and bugs sometimes keep the site from running as efficiently as it could or should. A word to the wise: if you are going to invest in and speculate on cryptocurrencies, do so carefully.​

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Bitcoin mining saps energy, costly, uses more power and also the reward delays. For mining, run software, get your wallet ready and be the first to solve a cryptographic problem and you get your reward after the new blocks have been added to the blockchain.Mining is said to be successful when all the transactions are recorded in the blockchain and the new blocks are added to the blockchain.

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NO WAY. How do some many people trust Coinbase with their money When their website’s software is full of faulty programs that they won’t or can’t fix. IE, I tried to add a new debit card to my account. I gave them my cards info and was told to check my account for two small charges made by coinbase and enter the amounts in a designated page. Both amounts were over $3.00, but the verification page only allowed me to submit amounts under $2.00. I was never able to add another card to my account. For me, no big deal,… Read more »
On February 16, 2018, Coinbase admitted that some customers were overcharged in error for credit and debit purchases of cryptocurrencies. The problem was initiated when banks and card issuers changed the merchant category code (MCC) for cryptocurrency purchases earlier this month. This meant that cryptocurrency payments would now be processed as "cash advances", meaning that banks and credit card issuers could begin charging customers cash-advance fees for cryptocurrency purchases. Any customers who purchased cryptocurrency on their exchange between January 22 and February 11, 2018 could have been affected. At first, Visa blamed Coinbase, telling the Financial Times on February 16 that it had "not made any systems changes that would result in the duplicate transactions cardholders are reporting." However, the latest statement from Visa and Worldpay on the Coinbase blog clarifies: "This issue was not caused by Coinbase."[45]

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